Book | Learning in Adulthood edited by Sharan Merriam

learning-in-adulthoodMerriam, Sharan B., Rosemary S. Caffarella and Lisa Baumgartner. Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide. 3rd ed. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007.

In this updated landmark book, the authors have gathered the seminal work and most current thinking on adult learning into one volume. Learning in Adulthoodaddresses a wide range of topics including: Who are adult learners? How do adults learn? Why are adults involved in learning activities? How does the social context shape the learning that adults are engaged in? How does aging affect learning ability?” – Book description from Amazon.com

My Notes

use this Prezi to visually move around my notes.

Part One: Adult Learning in Contemporary Society

Chapter One: The Social Context of Adult Learning

“historically there has always been an interlocking of adult learning needs with the social context in which they occur.” (6)

this chapter explores three conditions characteristic of the current sociocultural context that are shaping the learning needs of adults in today’s world…

Changing Demographics

There are more adults than non-adults

increasing number of older adults

rising level of education

rising number of high school drop-outs needing adult education

growing ethnic diversity “by 2050, minorities will account for nearly 50 percent of the overall population.” (10)

Globalization

A Global economy

a shift to a service and information society

changes in the configuration of the labor force

Technology

more information at a faster pace

The Convergence of Demographics, Globalization, and Technology

“embedded in this convergence of demographics, economics, and technology is a value system based on the political and economic structure of capitalism.” (22)

It can serve as a mechanism for exclusion and control (24)

blurring the field’s content and delivery mechanisms (24)

“we may be witnessing the emergence of what has been called the learning society.” (25)

Summary

 

Chapter Two: Learning Environments and Learning Concepts

Where Learning Occurs

Formal and Nonformal Settings

formal = classroom and institutional learning

nonformal = community-based and indigenous learning

Informal Learning

most prevalent form

everyday learning

three forms: self-directed, incidental, socialization

Online Learning

positives – broader access and flexibility

negatives – “digital divide” between the haves and the have-nots.

myths of online learning: 1. inclusive and democratic. 2. accessible and flexible. 3. cost-effective. These are only true for the “haves”.

Organizational Learning and the Learning Organization

key points: individuals do the learning, theories-in-use vs. espoused theories, embedded in the images of the organization (43)

Peter Senge’s book The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization

Learning Organization aka adaptive, resilient, innovative (45)

Lifelong Learning and the Learning Society

 

Summary

 

Chapter Three: Adult Learners: Who Participates and Why

Who Participates?

Johnstone and Rivera’s Landmark Study

National Studies of Formal Participation

Nonformal and Informal Participation

“the profile of the typical adult learner in formal educational activities remains remarkably consistent: white, middle-class, employed, younger, and better educated than the nonparticipant. Further, employment-related reasons account for the majority of participant interest in continuing education.” (78)

Why Adults Do or Do Not Participate

Survey Study

Motivational Orientations of Learners

Barriers to Participation

Adding a Sociological Lens to Explanations of Participation

“people’s decisions to participate have less to do with their needs and motives than with their position in society and the social experiences that have shaped their lives.” (78)

Problematizing the Concept of Participation 

a critique of the following four assumptions:

Participation is a Good Thing

Participation Equals Formal Learning

Learners are Abstract, Not Socialized Individuals

There are Barriers, Not Resistance

Part Two: Adult Learning Theory and Models

Chapter Four: Knowles’s Andragogy, and Models of Adult Learning by McClusky, Illeris, and Jarvis

Houle. The Design of Education (1972)

Kidd. How Adults Learn (1973)

Knowles. The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species (1973) and The Modern Practice of Adult Education (1970)

Andragogy

Six assumptions:

  1. as a person matures, his or her self-concept moves from that of a dependent personality toward one of a self-directing human being
  2. an adult accumulates a growing reservoir of experience, which is a rich resource for learning.
  3. The readiness of an adult to learn is closely related to the developmental tasks of his or her social role.
  4. There is a change in time perspective as people mature–from future application of knowledge to immediacy of application. Thus, an adult is more problem centered than subject centered in learning.
  5. The most potent motivations are internal rather than external
  6. Adults need to know why they need to learn something. (84)

much debate over whether this is a theory at all. a theory of learning or a theory of teaching?

Knowles himself wrote the he “prefers to think of [andragogy] as a model of assumptions about learning or a conceptual framework that serves as a basis for an emergent theory.” (87)

Shifted from a contrast between pedagogy vs. andragogy to a continuum from pedagogy (teacher-directed learning) to andragogy (student-directed learning)

andragogy now seems to be situation-specific and not unique to adults. (87)

Recent Critiques of Andragogy

too focused on autonomous individualism.

does not acknowledge the socially-situated self.

basically only describes the white privileged learner.

Research on Andragogy

Beder and Darkenwald found no difference in how teachers approached adults or preadults

Rachal proposes seven standards or criteria to see if it really works.

Other Models of Adult Learning

McClusky’s Theory of Margin

margin is the ratio of load (L) to power (P). more power means a greater margin to participate in learning. (93)

“It is perhaps a better counseling tool than it is an explanation of adult learning, however.” (96)

Illeris’s Three Dimensions of Learning Model

three dimensions involved in learning–cognition, emotion, and society. (97)

five stimuli:

  1. perception
  2. transmission -someone passes information
  3. experience – acting in the learning process.
  4. imitation
  5. activity or participation – goal-directed activity.

Jarvis’s Learning Process

begins with experience

disjuncture between biography and experience

all learning begins with the five human sensations of sound, sight, smell, taste, and touch.

all experience occurs within the learner’s world, which is ever-changing.

next level – three ways of learning: thinking, doing, and feeling (experiencing emotion)

“Each model discussed in this chapter contributes in its own way to advancing our understanding of adult learners. However, there has been little research testing the power of the models to explain or predict adult learning behavior. The process of model and theory building does, however, stimulate inquiry and reflection, all of which may eventually provide some of the answers to our questions about adult learning.” (104)

Chapter Five: Self-Directed Learning

[Tough] – self-planned learning

Goals of Self-Directed Learning

1. enhance the ability of adult learners to be self-directed

grounded in humanistic philosophy

[Brockett and Hiemstra] Personal Responsibility Orientation PRO

    • human nature is basically good
    • individuals possess virtually unlimited potential for growth
    • only by accepting responsibility for one’s own learning is it possible

2.  foster transformational learning

3.  promote emancipatory learning and social action

Self-Directed Learning as Process

reflects goal one, primarily

Linear Models

[Tough]

thirteen steps in self-planned learning projects

[Knowles]

  1. climate setting
  2. diagnosing learning needs
  3. formulating learning goals
  4. identifying human and material resources
  5. choosing and implementing strategies
  6. evaluating learning outcomes

Interactive Models

Spear’s Model

three elements:

  1. the opportunities people find themselves in
  2. past or new knowledge
  3. chance occurrences

Brockett and Hiemstra’s Model

PRO Personal Responsibility Orientation model

“instructors must possess skills in helping learners do needs assessments, locate learning resources, and choose instructional methods and evaluation strategies.” (113

Garrison’s Model

grounded in a collaborative constructivist perspective

  1. integrates self-management
  2. self-monitoring
  3. motivational dimensions

Other Models

[Cavaliere]

five stages

  1. inquiring
  2. modeling
  3. experimenting
  4. theorizing
  5. actualizing

[Danis]

[Toberson and Merriam]

Instructional Models

[Grow]

Staged Self-Directed Learning (SSDL)

based on Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership model

Stage 1: Dependent Learner

Stage 2: Interested Learner

Stage 3: Involved Learner

Stage 4: Self-directed Learner

[Hammond and Collins]

  1. Building a cooperative learning climate
  2. analyzing and critically reflecting on themselves and contexts
  3. generating competency profiles for themselves
  4. diagnosing their learning needs within the framework of personal and social context
  5. formulating socially and personally relevant learning goals that result in learning agreements
  6. implementing and managing their learning
  7. reflecting on an evaluating their learning

Self-Direction as a Personal Attribute of Learners

Assessing Self-Directedness

Autonomy of Self-Directedness: Innate or Situational?

[Chene]

three elements that describe an autonomous learner:

  1. independence
  2. the ability to make choices and critical judgments
  3. capacity to articulate the norms and limits of a learning society.

autonomy is not necessarily context-free

four major variables to whether individual learners exhibit autonomous behavior

  1. technical skills related to learning process
  2. familiarity with subject
  3. sense of personal competence as learners
  4. commitment to learning

[Boucouvalas]

“Although autonomy reflects independence and uniqueness, homonomy is ‘the experience of being part of meaningful wholes and in harmony with superindividual units such as family, social group, culture, and cosmic order.'” (124)

“participation in something beyond the individual self is the motivation for the homonomous (connected) self.” (124)

Recent Applications of SDL and Building Research and Theory

[Dunlap and Grabinger]

three teaching strategies to develop capacity for self-direction, metacognitive awareness, and a disposition toward learning:

  1. problem-based learning (PBL)
  2. intentional learning environments
  3. cognitive apprenticeships

Chapter Six: Transformational Learning

The Lenses of Transformational Learning

[Taylor]

seven lenses in two groups based on locus of learning

  1. locus = individual: psychocritical, psychodevelopmental, psychoanalytic
  2. locus = sociocultural: social-emancipatory, cultural-spiritual, race-centric, planetary

Key players in the individual loci: [Jack Mezirow] [Laurent Daloz] [Robert Boyd]

key players in the sociocultural: [Freire] [Tisdell] [Taylor] [

Mezirow’s Psychocritical Approach

“Mezirow’s theory concerns how adults make sense of their life experience. Mezirow defines learning as ‘the process of using a prior interpretation to construe a new or a revised interpretation of the meaning of one’s experience in order to guide future action.'” (132)

types of meaning structures

  • frame of reference
  • a habit of mind
  • point of view – made up of meaning schemes

“Transformative learning occurs when there is a transformation in one of our beliefs or attitudes (a meaning scheme), or a transformation of our entire perspective (habit of mind).” (133)

Ten steps in four main components:

  1. experiences
  2. critical self-examination
  3. discourse (Habermas)
    1. action – becoming aware of a need to change
    2. a feeling of solidarity with others committed to change
    3. one has to learn what actions are appropriate
  4. most often set in motion by a disorienting dilemma

Daloz’s Psychodevelopmental Perspective and Boyd’s Psychoanalytic Approach

[Daloz]

three maps of adult development

  1. phase theories e.g. [Daniel Levinson]
  2. stage theories e.g. [Kegan]
  3. ethical development [Perry]

“Daloz takes a storied approach. Through storytelling, Daloz and his students journey toward a more holistic and transformed worldview.” (139)

[Boyd]

“His work, grounded in depth psychology, sees transformation as an inner journey of individuation from parts of the psyche such as the ego and the collective unconscious.” (139)

Freire’s Social-Emancipatory Philosophy

emerges from context of poverty, illiteracy, and oppression in the larger context of radical social change (140)

conscientization and empowerment

two kinds of education

  • banking – teacher-centered

and

  • problem posing – purpose = liberation

 

begins with dialogue

“The ultimate goal of education is liberation, or praxis, ‘the actin and reflection of men and women upon their world in order to transform it’. Note that a key component of Freire’s philosophy, like Mezirow’s, is critical reflection. Critical reflection occurs through problem posing and dialogue with other learners.” (141)

Emerging Sociocultural Perspectives: The Cultural-Spiritual, Race-Centric, and Planetary Approaches

[Tisdell] Cultural-Spiritual

“‘spirituality…is fundamentally about how we make meaning in our lives’ through conscious and unconscious processes such as dreams and symbols.” (141-2)

several factors:

  1. cross-cultural relationships
  2. educators need to be spiritually and culturally grounded in order to promote authenticity
  3. community-based, culturally relevant settings
  4. allow for explorations on the cognitive, affective, relational, and symbolic levels.

race-centric approach [Johnson-Bailey and Alfred] [Sheared]

african descent

Planetary View [Taylor]

“recognizes the interconnectedness between the universe, planet, natural environment, human community and the personal world.” (143)

SUMMARY commonalities among Transformational Approaches

  1. constructivists
  2. dialogue is necessary
  3. critical reflection
  4. social change

Key Concepts in Transformational Learning

  • Experience
  • Critical Reflection
  • three types of reflection
    • content reflection
    • process reflection
    • premise reflection

critical reflection = critical thinking and reflective practice

[Brookfield] writing about critical thinking

  1. trigger events
  2. appraisal
  3. exploration
  4. developing alternative perspectives
  5. integrate new thinking into fabric of life
  6. scrutinize

Development

[K Taylor]

changing how one knows in developmental terms

  1. dialogical process
  2. dialogical relationship with oneself
  3. continuous learners
  4. self-agency and authorship
  5. connections with others

[Kegan] “wrote that higher and adult education’s ‘mission’ is to ‘assist adults in creating the order of consciousness the modern world demands.'” (148)

Unresolved Issues in Transformational Learning Theory

Context

Rationality and Affect

Role of relationships in the Transformative Learning Process

Social Action

The Educators’ Place in Fostering Transformative Learning

Trends in the Transformational Learning Literature

Emotional and Spiritual Aspects

[Davis] explored “the human experience of spirit and its relationship to the transformative learning process.” (156)

[Sawyer] “detailed the role of cognition, emotion, and spirituality in cellular biologist Bruce Lipton’s transformation from holding a ‘materialist-reductionst-determist worldview…to a quantum physics-based understanding of the universe, founded on energetics, holism and uncertainty.'” (156)

Transformative learning and technology

[Cranton and Dirkx]

Transformative Learning in the workplace

Chapter Seven: Experience and Learning

Learning from Life Experiences

[John Dewey] + [Kolb and Kolb]

from [Dewey] [Piaget] [jung] [Rogers]

six general propositions of experiential learning theory

  1. learning is a process
  2. learning is relearning
  3. learners must resolve opposing modes of reflection
  4. learning is holistic
  5. learning involves interactions between learner and environment
  6. learning is constructivist in nature

MY QUESTION: What is constructivism?

From Wikipedia:

Constructivism is the way people create meaning of the world through a series of individual constructs. Constructs are the different types of filters we choose to place over our realities to change our reality from chaos to order. Von Glasersfeld describes constructivism as, “a theory of knowledge with roots in philosophy, psychology, and cybernetics” (p 162).[1] Simply stated, it is a learning process which allows a student to experience an environment first-hand, thereby, giving the student reliable, trust-worthy knowledge. The student is required to act upon the environment to both acquire and test new knowledge.

 

[edit] Constructivists

  • John Dewey (1859–1952)
  • Maria Montessori (1870–1952)
  • Władysław Strzemiński (1893–1952)
  • Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)
  • Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
  • George Kelly (1905–1967)
  • Heinz von Foerster (1911–2002)
  • Herbert A. Simon (1916–2001)
  • Ernst von Glasersfeld (1917–2010)
  • Paul Watzlawick (1921–2007)
  • Edgar Morin (1921-)
  • Humberto Maturana (1928-)
  • Laszlo Garai (1935-)
  • David A. Kolb (1939–)

Models of Experiential Learning

[Kolb] [Jarvis] = Constructivist paradigm

Requires four abilities:

  1. openness and willingness to involve oneself in new experiences
  2. observational and reflective skills
  3. analytical abilities
  4. decision-making and problem-solving skills

a cyclical process

nonreflective and reflective learning

[Boud and Walker] Usher, Bryant, and Johnson] = situative paradigm

specific contexts shape and individuals’ experience

how do differences in individuals influence reflection?

“These authors assert that ‘the meaning of experience is never permanently fixed; thus, the text of experience is always open to reinterpretation.'” (166)

[Fenwick] psychoanalytic, critical, and complexity approaches

Educator’s Roles and Purposes

facilitators of reflection

catalyst

coach or mentor

assessor of learner’s prior experiential learning

Methods Associated with Reflective and Situative Paradigms

Reflective Practice

allows one to make judgments in complex and murky situations

“Reflective practice is a deliberate pause to assume an open perspective, to allow for higher-level thinking processes. Practitioners use these processes for examining beliefs, goals, and practices, to gain new or deeper understanding that lead to actions that improve learning for students.”

Reflection-in-Action thinking through a situation after it has happened.

Reflection-in-Action

reshapes what we are doing while we are doing it.

triggered by surprise

“experienced professionals use reflection-in-action as a regular part of their practice.” (177)

Situated Cognition

“one cannot separate the learning process from the situation in which the learning is presented. Knowledge is not received and later transferred to another situation ‘but part of the very process of participation n the immediate situation.'” (178)

learning process changes from emphasis on memory and processing information to perception and the setting in which the perceptions are made (179)

learning and knowing are primarily cultural phenomena which moves the study of cognition into the social and political realm and raises the issues of power.

“Foremost among these critiques is a challenge to the fundamental notion that learning is something that occurs within the individual. Rather, learning encompasses the interaction of learners and the social environments in which they function.” (180)

need to create authentic experiences.

Cognitive Apprenticeships

tries to enculturate learners into authentic practices through activity and social interaction in a way similar to that evident in craft apprenticeship.

five phase model

  1. modeling
  2. approximating (concept of instructor scaffolding the process)
  3. scaffolding removed, less defined situations
  4. assistance only upon request
  5. generalizing

Anchored Instruction

“purpose is to create situations in which learners, through sustained experiences, can grapple with the problems and opportunities that experts encounter.” (181)

An Appraisal of Experiential Learning

critiques:

  1. debate whether people consist of one unified self or if they are a collection of multiple selves
  2. prominence of cognitive reflection
  3. separation of learner from context of the experience
  4. experiential learning is bounded “people’s knowing is colonized by being squeezed into…categories and identities.” (184)

Summary

Part Three: Newer Approaches to Adult Learning

Chapter Eight: Embodied, Spiritual, and Narrative Learning

“The whole person is made up of mind, body, and spirit…Our Western heritage has defined learning as a mental process that takes place in the mind–never mind that we cannot locate the ‘mind.'”(189)

separation of mind and body stems from Descartes and was reinforced by Enlightenment thinking.

Old School – learning = mental process

Embodied or Somatic Learning

[Michelson] Somatic or Embodied learning

Rejection of the Body

Reclaiming the Body in Learning

“is most often linked to experiential learning in the sense that we learn in an experience. somatic knowing, as is also true of spiritual and narrative knowing, is connect to adult learning through meaning-making.” (192)

[Siegesmund]

[Matthews]

[Crowdes]

[Amann] four dimensions: kinesthetic, sensory, affective, and spiritual.

“‘Emotions increase the strength of memories and help to recall the context of an experience, rendering it meaningful.'” quoting Hill (195)

embodied cognition [Cheville]

ontological performance [Beckett and Morris]

somatic epistemology for education [Brockman]

Spirituality in Learning

[Zohar and Marshall] are proposing a spiritual intelligence in addition to IQ and EQ

Defining Spirituality

[Tisdell] “‘Religion is an organized community of faith that has written doctrine and codes of regulatory behavior. Spirituality, however, is more personal belief and experience of a divine spirit or higher purpose, about how we construct meaning, and what we individually and communally experience and attend to and honor as the sacred in our lives.'” (200)

seven assumptions:

  1. spirituality and religion are not the same
  2. spirituality is about an awareness and honoring of wholeness and the interconnectedness of all things
  3. spirituality is fundamentally about meaning-making
  4. spirituality is always present (though often unacknowledged) in the learning environment
  5. spiritual development constitutes moving toward greater authenticity or to a more authentic self.
  6. spirituality is about how people construct knowledge through largely unconscious and symbolic processes, often made more concrete in art forms such as music, art, image, symbol, and ritual which are manifested culturally.
  7. spiritual experiences most often happen by surprise.

Physist David Bohm cited in [Lemkow] ‘what is spirit? the word is derived from a Latin word meaning ‘breath’ or ‘wind’–like respiration or inspiration. It is suggested by the trees moving with the invisible force of the wind. We may thus think of spirit as an invisible force–a life-giving essence that moves us deeply, or as a source that moves everything from within.'” (202)

[Graves] work on Grace. Several characteristics of Grace:

  1. transforming
  2. healing
  3. transcends the ego
  4. opening the possible
  5. pointing toward what is right
  6. enhancing creativity
  7. surprising

Fostering Spirituality in Adult Learning

“For spirituality or moments of grace to happen, ‘weighty seriousness’ must be replaced with playfulness, openness, creativity, and imagination.” (204)

[Vella]

[Daloz]

[English, Fenwick, and Parsons]

[Dirkx] imaginal method

[Courtenay]

Narrative Learning

[Rossiter] “‘Narrative knowing…is concerned more with human meaning than with discrete facts, more with coherence than with logic, more with sequences than with categories, and more with understanding than with predictability and control'”(208)

four types of narrative: cultural, filial, individual, organizational

Learning through Narrative

three ways in which stories appear in practice: storying the curriculum, storytelling, autobiography.

Three benefits of journaling: coping, joy of discovery, nurturing of one’s voice and spirit

Narrative Learning, Adult Development, and Transformational Learning

[Jack Mezirow] chief architect of transformational learning theory.

we seek to restory our lives.

“‘it is the question as to how I can compose a story big enough, with a horizon broad enough, to account for as much as possible of my actual life and render it available to me as a coherent, re-membered whole.'” (215)

Summary

Chapter Nine: Learning and Knowing: Non-Western Perspectives

summary of Western assumptions: “research and theory in adult learning to a large extent assumes that eh mind and body are split, thus leading to an emphasis on cognition, information processing, intelligence measures, cognitive development, and so on. Embedded in this focus are the cultural values of privileging the individual learner over the collective, and promoting autonomy and independence of thought and action over community and interdependence.” (217-18)

Why Study Other Ways of Learning and Knowing?

The Western/Non-Western Dichotomy, Culture, and Indigenous Knowledge

“what inking “Western” and “non-Western” to culture does is to provide a kind of shorthand for comparing two epistemological systems.” (223)

An Introduction to Five Non-Western Perspectives on Learning

Adult Learning from a Confucian Way of Thinking: Youngwha Kee

The Hindu Perspective: Swathi Nath Thaker

Maori Concepts of Learning and Knowledge: Brian Findsen

Adult Learning from an Islamic Perspective: Mazanah Muhamad and Mazalan Kamis

African Indigenous Education: Gabo Ntseane

Common Themes Across Non-Western and Indigenous Perspectives

  1. interdependence instead of independence in learning.
  2. communal nature of learning
  3. holistic approach includes spirit, mind, body, and emotional components
  4. informal, embedded in everyday life.

Chapter Ten: Critical Theory, Postmodern, and Feminist Perspectives

[Hart] [Tisdell] [Hill] [Grace] [Freire]

Common Themes

Race, Class, and Gender

Power and Oppression

Critical Social Theory: {Jürgen Habermas and the Frankfurt School

[Welton] The aim of critical social theory is ‘to help people to stop being passive victims who collude, at least partly, in their domination by external forces. critical theory’s liberating project is to name the enemies of human freedom, and to point to the possibility of freedom’s enlargement.” (250)

the appropriation of the lifeworld–our everyday personal interactions in home, family, and community–by the system–the structures of power. (250)

Knowledge and Truth

[Habermas] three types of knowledge: technical, practical, emancipatory.

one the postmodern’s major strategies: deconstruction (252)

Habermas identified four criteria that should result in mature, rational, candid, authentic discussions: comprehensibility, sincerity, truth, and legitimacy. (255)

Seven learning tasks in critical learning theory:

  1. challenging ideology.
  2. contesting hegemony
  3. unmasking power
  4. overcoming alienation
  5. learning liberation
  6. reclaiming reason
  7. practicing democracy

Critical Theory and Adult Learning

Postmodernism and Adult Learning

Feminist Pedagogy and Adult Learning

Part Four: Learning and Development

Chapter Eleven: Traditional Learning Theories

Plato: believed that the physical object in our everyday world have corresponding abstract forms that we can come to know through “introspection or self-analysis…only by turning away from the physical impure world to the world of ideas, pondered by the mind’s eye, can we hope to gain true knowledge.'” (275)

Aristotle: believed that all knowledge comes through the senses; these sense impressions can be pondered ‘to discover the lawfulness that runs through them'” (275)

Plato’s rationalism can be seen in Gestalt and cognitive psychology

Aristotle’s empiricism is evident in behavioral psychology.

Learning and Learning Theories

Behaviorist Orientation

[Watson] [Thorndike] [Tolman] [Guthrie] [Hull] [Skinner]

three basic assumptions:

  1. observable behavior
  2. environment shapes behavior
  3. contiguity and reinforcement are central

[Pavlov]

Humanist Orientation

“human beings can control their own destiny; people are inherently good and will strive for a better world; people are free to act, and behavior is the consequence of human choice; people possess unlimited potential for growth and development.'” (282)

[Maslow] [Rogers]

Cognitive Orientation

Gestalt psychology

two key assumptions:

  1. the memory system is an active organized processor of information
  2. prior knowledge plays an important role in learning

the thinking person interprets sensations and give meaning to the events that impinge upon his consciousness.” (285)

[Jean Piaget]

Social Cognitive Orientation

people learn from observing others

Constructivist Orientation

“maintains that learning is a process of constructing meaning; it is how people make sense of their experience.” (291)

Chapter Twelve: Adult Development

Four Approaches to Adult Development

Biological Development

Senses

The Central Nervous System

Psychological Development

Erickson’s Psychosocial Development Model

Levinson’s Age-Graded Model

Other Models

Sociocultural Factors

Social Roles and the Timing of Life Events

Socially Constructed Notions of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexual Orientation

Integrative Perspectives

Chapter Thirteen: Cognitive Development in Adulthood

Foundational Work on Cognitive Development

Linear and Categorical Models of Adult Cognitive Development

Perry’s Developmental Scheme

The Reflective Judgment Model

Women’s Ways of Knowing

Epistemological Reflection Model

The Transcendence View

Dialectical Thinking

The Contextual Perspective

Wisdom: The Hallmark of Adult Thinking

Chapter Fourteen: Intelligence and Aging

Traditional Approaches to Intelligence

The Biological Approach

The Individual Differences Approach

Age and Intellectual Abilities

Concept of Intelligence

parameters of Aging

Research Designs and Measures

Challenges to the More Traditional Concepts of Intelligence

Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Practical Intelligence

Emotional Intelligence

The Contextual Perspective of Intelligence

Intelligence, Aging, and Adult Learning

Chapter Fifteen: Memory, Cognition, and the Brain

Human Memory

Memory and Aging

Sensory and Working Memory

Long-Term Memory

Memory in Context

Fostering Memory Capacity and Skills

Knowledge Structures

Prior Knowledge and Experience

Cognitive Style and Learning Style

Neurobiology and the Brain

Differing Views of the Brain

The Structures and Functions of the Brain

Connections to Learning in Adulthood

New Directions and Discoveries

Chapter Sixteen: Reflections on Learning in Adulthood

The Learner

The Context

The Learning Process

The Configuration of Learner, Context, and Process

Some Concluding Thoughts